One practical application of Pay-What-You-Want is the American Museum of Natural History in New York, which I use as product in one of my projects. (picture taken by Elisa Hofmann)

In general, my research interests are:

  • Behavioral and Experimental Economics
  • Participative Pricing Mechanisms, such as Pay-What-You-Want
  • Prosocial Behavior and Cooperation
  • Simulation and Business Games
  • Resilience
  • Innovation
  • Design of Climate Change Negotiations
  • Audience Effects and Social Image Concerns
  • Peer Effects and Interpersonal Closeness
  • Social Norms
  • Immorality Judgments

Publications and Working Papers

  • 2022: Hofmann, Elisa, Kyriacou, Lucas, Schmidt, Klaus M.: A Model United Nations Experiment on Climate Negotiations. Forthcoming in: Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik (Journal of Economics and Statistics).
  • 2022: Gröschke, Daniela, Hofmann, Elisa, Müller, Nadine D., Wolf, Judith: Multi-level framework of resilience – Insights from health care providers in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic. Revise & resubmit: Frontiers in Psychology.
  • 2021: Müller, Nadine D., Wolf, Judith, Hofmann, Elisa, Gröschke, Daniela: Integratives Konzept zur ganzheitlichen Förderung von Resilienz in Krankenhäusern. Jena Studies in Intercultural Communication and Interactions, 2021/03, Friedrich Schiller University Jena.
  • 2021: Hofmann, Elisa, Michael E. Fiagbenu, Asri Özgümüs, Amir M. Tahamtan and Tobias Regner: Who is watching me? Disentangling audience and interpersonal closeness effects in a Pay-What-You-Want context. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, Volume 90.
  • 2020: Hofmann, Elisa: The power of close relationships and audiences: Interpersonal closeness and payment observability as determinants of voluntary payments. Jena Economic Research Papers, 2020-016, Friedrich Schiller University Jena.
  • 2016: Hofmann, Elisa: Zahl doch einfach, was du willst! Warum sich Pay-What-You-Want für deutsche Kinos lohnt. Marburg: Tectum-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8288-3799-7

Work in Progress

  1. Immorality Judgments and Framing Effects in Voluntary Payment Settings (with Aya Adra and Deliah Bolesta) [Working Paper coming soon]
  2. Evaluating the Methodological Robustness of Social Norm Measurements (with Deliah Bolesta) [Working Paper coming soon]
  3. Pay-What-You-Want and Uncertainty (with Tobias Regner) [Working Paper coming soon]
  4. Strategic Avoidance of Pay-What-You-Want Schemes [Working Paper coming soon]
  5. Organizational resilience in hospitals before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (with Daniela Gröschke, Nadine D. Müller, and Judith Wolf) [Working Paper coming soon ]

Conferences and Talks




  • 14th Summer School on “Innovation, Digitalization and Structural Change”, Jena, Germany (Participation)
  • Annual Conference Verein für Socialpolitik 2020, Online (Participation)
  • 21st Intercultural Summer Academy Jena 2020, Online (Participation)
  • ESA Global Online Around-the-Clock Meetings 2020 , Online (Participation)


  • 14th Nordic Conference on Behavioral and Experimental Economics (NCBEE), Kiel Institute for World Economy , Germany (Talk)
  • 12th European ESA Meeting, Burgundy School of Business in Dijon, France (Talk)
  • 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), University Utrecht, Netherlands (Talk)
  • 13th IMPRS Uncertainty Summer School


  • 9th Thurgau Experimental Economics Meeting (THEEM), Kreuzlingen, Switzerland (Talk)
  • 12th IMPRS Uncertainty Topics Workshop, LUISS Rome, Italy (Talk)
  • 12th IMPRS Uncertainty Summer School, Jena, Germany (Poster)
  • 11th IMPRS Uncertainty Thesis Workshop, Ringberg, Germany (Talk)


  • 12th Nordic Conference on Behavioural and Experimental Economics (NCBEE), University of Gothenburg, Sweden (Participation)
  • Behavioural and Experimental Economics Brown Bag Seminar, University of Gothenburg, Sweden (Talk)
  • 11th IMPRS Uncertainty Topics Workshop, Trento, Italy (Talk)
  • 11th IMPRS Uncertainty Summer School, Jena, Germany (Poster)
  • 10th IMPRS Uncertainty Thesis Workshop, Gremmelin, Germany, (Talk)


  • 10th IMPRS Uncertainty Topics Workshop, Jena, Germany (Participation)
  • 10th IMPRS Uncertainty Summer School, Jena, Germany (Poster)
  • 9th IMPRS Uncertainty Thesis Workshop, Berlin, Germany (Talk)